The guys at Awesome Dice have a fascinating article on the history of dice in gaming. They put together this pretty cool graphic that highlights the major finds in dice.
One of the cool things about this post is how all the information is specifically from a gaming point of view — these aren’t dice that were used for fortunetelling for mysticism — it’s all about dice used for gaming.
I think the coolest thing on here was the ancient d20 from the Roman empire 2,000 years ago. You can see some more information and the sources for all the data on the post here.